goodplay builds upon playbooks – Ansible’s configuration, deployment, and orchestration language.
Quoting from Ansible’s documentation:
At a basic level, playbooks can be used to manage configurations of and deployments to remote machines. At a more advanced level, they can sequence multi-tier rollouts involving rolling updates, and can delegate actions to other hosts, interacting with monitoring servers and load balancers along the way.
A pseudo playbook – written as a YAML file – may look like this:
## playbook_name.yml # play #1 - hosts: host1:host2 tasks: # play #1, task #1 - name: first task name module1: arg1: value1 arg2: value2 # play #1, task #2 - name: second task name module2: arg1: value1 arg2: value2 tags: specialtag # play #2 - hosts: host3 tasks: # play #2, task #1 - name: another task name module1: arg1: value1
Each playbook is composed of one or more plays.
Each play basically defines two things:
- on which hosts to run a particular set of tasks, and
- what tasks to run on each of these hosts.
A task refers to the invocation of a module which can be e.g. something like creating a user, installing a package, or starting a service. Ansible already comes bundled with a large module library.
Writing Test Playbooks¶
After we have briefly introduced the basic terminology of the Ansible language, it is now time to define what a test playbook looks like in the goodplay context.
A test playbook is as the name implies a playbook with the following contraints:
- The filename is prefixed with
- The filename extension is
- Right beside the test playbook a file or directory named
inventoryexists. See Defining Environment for details.
- If you want to test against Docker containers you may optionally put a
docker-compose.ymlfile right beside the test playbook.
- The test playbook contains or includes at least one task tagged with
test, also called test task.
- Within a test playbook all test task names must be unique.
An example test playbook that verifies that two hosts (
created as Docker containers, each one running
image) are reachable:
## docker-compose.yml version: "2" services: host1: image: "centos:centos6" tty: True host2: image: "centos:centos6" tty: True ## inventory host1 ansible_user=root host2 ansible_user=root
## test_ping_hosts.yml - hosts: host1:host2 tasks: - name: hosts are reachable ping: tags: test
The name of the single test task is
hosts are reachable.
The test task only passes when the task runs successful on both hosts
i.e. both hosts are reachable.
A slightly more complicated example making use of more advanced Ansible features, like defining host groups or registering variables and using Ansible’s assert module:
## install_myapp.yml - hosts: myapp-hosts tasks: - name: install myapp debug: msg: "Do whatever is necessary to install the app"
## tests/docker-compose.yml version: "2" services: host1: image: "centos:centos6" tty: True host2: image: "centos:centos6" tty: True ## tests/inventory [myapp-hosts] host1 ansible_user=root host2 ansible_user=root
## tests/test_myapp.yml - include: ../install_myapp.yml - hosts: myapp-hosts tasks: - name: config file is only readable by owner file: path: /etc/myapp/myapp.conf mode: 0400 state: file tags: test - name: fetch content of myapp.log command: cat /var/log/myapp.log register: myapp_log changed_when: False - name: myapp.log contains no errors assert: that: "'ERROR' not in myapp_log.stdout" tags: test
Writing Tests for Ansible Roles¶
To keep playbooks organized in a consistent manner and make them reusable, Ansible provides the concept of Ansible Roles. An Ansible role is defined as a directory (named after the role) with subdirectories named by convention:
role/ defaults/ files/ handlers/ meta/ tasks/ templates/ vars/
When writing tests for your role, goodplay expects another subdirectory by convention:
role/ ... tests/
By following this convention, goodplay takes care of making the Ansible role available on the Ansible Roles Path, so you can use them directly in your test playbook.